[1]  Millions of years of human fossils reconciled with Genesis at last !

'Science without religion is lame; religion without science is blind.' - Albert Einstein

The Conflict between Fundamental Christians and Archaeologists

In the past the Archaeologist's view of man's ancient history over millions of years and the account of it in Genesis, spanning a time scale of either 7 'days' or of 77 generations from Adam to Jesus, have been viewed as conflicting, as contradictory and as mutually exclusive. We (the Lords' Witnesses) had previously taken the view that all 'History' before the flood was rubbish, in order to justify our acceptance of the Genesis account.

The argument of the Archaeologist has been that man has indeed been around for hundreds of thousands of years and so Genesis is nonsense. The argument of the fundamental Christian has been that Genesis is true word for word and that human archaeology must therefore be nonsense.

26 And he made out of one [man] every nation of men, to dwell upon the entire surface of the earth, and he decreed the appointed times and the set limits of the dwelling of [men] (Acts 17).

But we have now found out that these two histories are not actually contradictory at all, in fact they fit together perfectly. We will therefore now show the reader in this section that Adam’s sin did not only condemn his sons, it also saved his species, Homo Sapiens, and was the beginning of civilisation as we know it today.

11 Therefore I ask, Did they stumble so that they fell completely? Never may that happen! But by their false step there is salvation to people of the nations, to incite them to jealousy (Romans 11).

This scripture, in the literal meaning, applies to the physical Jews and the Gentiles. But the principle that the error of a chosen race leads to salvation for the rest of us applies also to Adam and his sons, as we shall see.

Human History

First we take a quick tour of ancient human history. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution (CEHE) & World Prehistory (Scarre & Fagan), more or less agree on the following Early Humans Table:

Type of Man

Height (metres)

Brain (cc)

Period years (before present)

Homo Habilis (small)


500 - 650

2 - 1.6 million

Homo Habilis (large)

c. 1.5

600 - 800

2.4 - 1.6 million

Homo Erectus

1.3 - 1.5

750 - 1250

1.8 million - 300,000

Archaic Homo Sapiens


1100 - 1400

400,000 - 100,000


1.5 - 1.7

1200 - 1750

150,000 - 30,000

Modern man (cro magnon) Homo sapiens

1.6 - 1.85

1200 - 1700

(a bit smaller)

130,000 - now

It is not known how these changes occurred. It is presumed that the changes were for evolutionary advantage. Neanderthal and modern man coexisted for a long time. It is not known whether they could interbreed. It is thought that they could. It is not known why Neanderthals died out 30,000 years ago. The correlation with the Monrose Hypothesis is astounding - see [234].

Prehistoric Man's Achievements

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution (CEHE) and the Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia (CAM) and World Prehistory have the following dates for Animal & Cereal domestication:


Wild progenitor

First Domestication

Approx BC (CAM)

First Domestication

approx BC (CEHE)






Wild Cereals

8,000 (WP)

8,000 (WP)


Bezoar Goat




Asiatic mouflon




Aurochs (extinct)








Wild Horse


4,000 For Riding




3,000 For Riding






Jungle Fowl

6,000 (China)


If truly all Dogs descend from the wild wolf, as is currently believed then the gene pool of the wolf is unbelievably large, encompassing the Bull Terrier, the Chihuahua, the Poodle, the Great Dane, the Rottweiler and the Beagle. These modern dogs cannot possibly have evolved by random mutations away from the wolf in a mere 12,000 years. On the contrary, It is a known fact that they were selectively bred by man from the gene pool of the wolf. If indeed individual species do have this much genetic flexibility, then Darwin’s comparatively minor Finch differentiation observations must all have been manifestations of this built in species capability rather than the result of evolution from random mutations over eons of time - see [221].

Genesis tells us that Adam would have in subjection: every living creature that is moving upon the earth (Genesis 1:28). This would include Horses and Camels for riding. So this command was fulfilled right on time, because Adam was born in 4027 BC - see [16].

Human Tool Advancement 

Metallurgy table:

Radio Carbon Date

Bristlecone Pine - Dendro Date


Mesopotamian (Babylonian)

Aegean (Greece)




























Some Copper







Some Copper forging





Some Copper


Some Copper


Before 4150

Before 5000







The earliest scientifically documented hot working, annealing of copper is 4,000 BC in western Russia. The earliest scientifically accepted forging, casting, is in the Gumelnitsa culture of Troy. Now in standard Radio carbon dating this culture started between 4000 BC and 3300 BC (Before Civilisation, Renfrew p108,190-192). With dendrochronological recalibration from bristlecone pine (rings of trees) it’s 700 years earlier.

The Copper age, or Chalcolithic age generally starts in 4,500 BC. In Canaan, the modern day Israel and Palestine, the copper industry began to be developed from 4300 to 3300 (Genesis - Feyerick). It would have started with cold working of copper nuggets, then progressed to hot working, then smelting, then casting. Genesis relates that:

22 As for Zillah, she too gave birth to Tubal-cain, the forger of every sort of tool of copper and iron. And the sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah (Genesis 4).

Crudely speaking, this chap was around at the right time to be the father of hot forging of metals.

Historical Estimates of World Population

Year World Population in Millions
-10000 4
-8000 5
-5000 5
-4000 7
-3000 14
-2000 27
-1000 50
-500 100
-200 150
1 170
200 190
400 190
500 190
600 200
700 210
800 220
900 240
1000 265

Table from: McEvedy, Colin and Richard Jones, 1978, Atlas of World Population History, Facts on File, New York, pp. 342-351. This table shows a steady state human population prior to Adam's arrival on 4027Tishri1, then an exponential explosion thereafter!

The Post Adam Population boom  

Genesis dates Adam as being born in 4027 BC - see [16]. Ancient History has it that in Nagada, 15 miles south of Thebes in Egypt, in 4000BC, little hamlets spaced around 1 km apart grew enough food to support around 100 people/square km. By 3600BC a walled town with cemeteries stood in the heart of Nagada with rectangular mud brick dwellings and larger more palatial residences. Many inhabitants were non farmers. They were traders, officials and artisans who lived in permanent towns. This was all made possible by improved farming which supported around 1000 people/square km. They cleared trees, removed dense grass, built dykes, dug drainage canals and did many of the things that modern farmers do today, from a standing start 400 years earlier (Ancient Civilisations - Scarre & Fagan p94). Cambridge Ancient History and Genesis - Feyerick, put this advance as occurring in 3500BC, so the whole process was from 3700 to 3300BC in this Chronology.

These things show that the scripture in Genesis:

1 When men started to grow in numbers on the surface of the ground, and daughters were born to them,
2 then the sons of the true God began to notice the daughters of men, that they were good looking (Genesis 6)

refers to the first true population boom of mankind.

'Man', 'The Man' and the bible code

We read in Genesis 1:26 about 'man', we then read in Genesis 1:27 about 'the man'. This may seem like a trivial distinction to make, until one remembers that 'the God' is Jehovah, the one true God, the only uncreated God. But there is another Gods who has been created, that is begotten.

1 No man has seen God at any time; the only-begotten God who is in the bosom [position] with the Father is the one that has explained him (John 1).

The only begotten God is Jesus. He was seen, but the God is Jehovah, who cannot be seen (if you are a Trinitarian do not worry at this stage, we will cure you - see intro39

Moses explains:
17 For Jehovah your Gods is the Gods [polite plural] of Gods and the Lords [polite plural] of lords, the Gods [polite plural] great, mighty and fear-inspiring, who treats none with partiality nor accepts a bribe (Deuteronomy 10).

So even at the time of Moses Jehovah was a God of God. So Michael was a God - constructively by agreement. Just as a fiance is a wife to God - see intro26.

Paul explains fully:
5 For even if [some] are called Gods, either in [the] heavens or on the earth; (even as there are many Gods, and many Lords);
6 but to us [is] one God, the Father, out of whom all things [are], and we into him [are going - to be born again as Gods], and one Lord Jesus Christ, through whom all things are, and we through him. (1 Corinthians 8 LWT)

Yes, there is only one God - out of whom all things are
and there is only one Lord - though whom all things are

But there are plainly two Lords, since Jehovah is Lord as well as Jesus. And there are also two Gods, since Jesus is the only begotten God according to John 1:18. 

So keeping this fine distinction in mind, we propose that just as 'the God' is a different uncreated being from all of the other created Gods to be, so 'the man', who was Adam, was a different being from all of the other Homo sapiens around at the time of the creation of Adam who have the generic title of 'man', and are basically mankind. Now the exact Hebrew Interlinear translation of Genesis 1:26,27 is as follows:

26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. (Genesis 1 KJV)
26 And God went on to say: Let us make man in our image, according to our likeness. (Genesis 1 NWT)
26 rm,aYOw: ~yhilOa/ hf,[]n: ~d'a' Wnmel.c;B. WnteWmd.K (Genesis 1 WLC)
26 rmaÂw> ~yhilOa/ hf[ ~d'a' ~l,c,ÂB. tWmD.ÂK.  (Genesis 1 WLC Stems) 

~d'a' man  Wnmel.c;B. in our image  WnteWmd.K according to our likeness
Where b means 'in' and k means 'as', and the root  ~l,c, means: Shade, shadow, image, likeness, and the root hm'D' means: Likeness, image.

27 So God created man in his [own] image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. (Genesis 1 KJVi)
27 And God proceeded to create the man in his image, in God's image he created him; male and female he created them. (Genesis 1 NWT)
27 ar"b.YIw: ~yhilOa/ ~d'a'h'-ta, Aml.c;B. ~l,c,B. ~yhilOa/ ar"B' AtaO rk'z" hb'qen>W ar"B' ~t'aO (Genesis 1 WLC)
27 arbÂw> ~yhilOa/ ~d'a'Âh;Âtae ~l,c,ÂB. ~l,c,ÂB. ~yhilOa/ arb tae rk'z" hb'qen>Âw> arb ta (Genesis 1 WLC Stems)

~d'a'h' the man Aml.c;B. in his image ~l,c,B. ~yhilOa/ in image of Gods [polite plural]

So ‘man’ was created by 'us' in 'our image' according to 'our likeness', an image of several beings, but 'the man' was created by 'God' in God's image, an image of one being - although the polite plural (Gods - Elohim) is used. This is precisely the distinction that we have just made above. Namely, 'man' is generic, made by a plurality of beings, and made in the image of a plurality of beings, 'our image', (in fact in the image of God and his wife, the first Holy Spirit - see intro11) whereas Adam, is unique, made by God himself and made in the image of the one and only Jehovah. So 'man' stands for mankind, which was Homo sapiens, Cro-magnon man. Whereas 'the man', stands for the one off, Adam.

Putting this another way, Adam was a direct first generation son of God, whereas the pre-adamics were the children of the angels. They were images of images of God. And just as God is way more intelligent than the angels, so Adam was way more intelligent than the pre-adamics. Adam was man Mark II. 

Now 'man', Homo sapiens, pre-adamic man, mankind, is not blessed and has in subjection all animals. But Adam is blessed and has in subjection every living creature, which would include Homo sapiens. Not only that but Adam is told to fill the earth, and he has done this. Homo sapiens had only managed around 5 - 7 million, when Adam appeared in 4027 BC (McEvedy, Atlas of World Population).

One of the ways in which Adam was created in God's image, rather than in 'our image' which is the image of the angels, is that he was the first of a new type of man and there was only one of him, just as God was the first spirit being and initially there was only one of him. In fact Adam was a direct son of God, not a son of a son of God. In this way Adam was similar to the firstborn angel (who was in fact Satan - see Intro19). In truth Adam was Satan's direct brother. Satan being the firstborn angel and the only other direct son of God, had firstborn patriarchal rights over all of creation except Adam. There was his jealousy.

26 And God [Elohim literally 'Gods' meaning the holy spirit under God's direction] went on to say: Let us make man  [~d'a'] in our image, according to our likeness [an image of an image of God, a son of a son of God - human children of the angels], and let them have in subjection the fish of the sea and the flying creatures of the heavens and the domestic animals and all the earth and every moving [animal] that is moving upon the earth.
27 And God [Elohim meaning Jehovah himself - see Genesis 2:4,7] proceeded to create the man [~d'a'h'] in his image, in God's image he created him [a direct son of God, a direct image of God with no intermediary. God's firstborn human son. God's second direct son after Satan - see Intro19]; male and female he created them 28 Further, God blessed them [Adam and Eve] and God said to them: Be fruitful and become many and fill the earth and subdue it, and have in subjection the fish of the sea and the flying creatures of the heavens and every living [being] that is moving upon the earth (Genesis 1).

4 This is a history of the heavens and the earth in the time of their being created, in the day that Jehovah God [YHWH Elohim] made earth and heaven (Genesis 2).
7 And Jehovah God [YHWH Elohim qualifying the ambiguous verses 27 and 28] proceeded to form the man out of dust from the ground and to blow into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man came to be a living soul (Genesis 2).

Now at first sight this looks like a rather repetitive account of the creation of mankind. But let us examine these 3 verses a bit closer since they may just hold the secret to our very existence within them. Here is a comparative table of the two successive accounts of our creation...

Action Verse 26 Verses 27 and 28
Who does the creating? Us (the holy angels, i.e. all the angels in God's administration, under God's direction) God himself using the holy spirit
In whose image? In our image (the image of the holy spirit) an image of an image, a son of a son of God The image of God himself, an image of God directly, a first generation son of God
In whose likeness The angels n/a
Name Man [~d'a' The Man [~d'a'h']
Created as Male and Female? No Yes, Male and Female he created them
Blessed? No Yes
Be fruitful become many fill the earth? No Yes
What do they have in subjection? Fish, flying creatures, domestic animals, all the earth, every crawling animal moving on the earth Fish, flying creatures, every living [being] creature moving on the earth

So verses 27 and 28 are not merely a repetition of the creative act of verse 26. Verses 27 and 28 are the creation of something different from verse 26. Verse 26 is the creation of 'man', of mankind, of pre-adamic man. Pre-adamic man was created by the holy angels in the joint image of his angelic parents a male angel and a female angel, whereas verse 27 is the creation of 'the man', Adam.  Adam was created by God himself, and made in the image of God alone, being a direct first generation son of God, like Satan was. God is perfect, the angels are not. These are therefore two different images and therefore two different creations. So verse 26 is the statement by God and the angels: Hey lets have human children. The angels had them first in breeding in pairs and called the children mankind, and then God had one, called Adam. Like all children, they bore the image of their parents. Those procreated in the manner of verse 26 bore the image of their two angelic parents and those procreated in the manner of verse 28 bore the image of God.

Pre-adamic man was not blessed, Adam was. Adam was blessed with procreating power in order that he could fill the earth, and with authority over every living being including the pre-adamics on the earth. Adam did actually fill the earth, the pre-adamics did not. 

To prove categorically that pre-adamic man existed, consider the position of Cain who was concerned after he killed Abel that he himself would be killed. But by whom? Cain killed Abel before Seth was born and if there were no pre-adamics around then since Seth was the 3rd born of Adam and Eve, there was non one to kill him other than Adam or Eve...

25 And Adam proceeded to have intercourse again with his wife [the last time being when she produced Abel] and so she gave birth to a son and called his name Seth, because, as she said: God has appointed another seed in place of Abel, because Cain killed him (Genesis 4).

3 And Adam lived on for 130 years. Then he became father to a son in his likeness, in his image, and called his name
4 And the days of Adam after his fathering Seth came to be 800 years. Meanwhile [i.e. after Seth] he became father to sons and daughters (Genesis 5).

As a further proof consider the words of Paul at Ephesians 1...

4 just as he chose us in him before the founding of the world, that we should be holy and without blemish before him in love (Ephesians 1)

The founding of the world was Jesus' agreement to ransom Adam. Without that agreement Adam would have died when he sinned and there would have been no world. But prior to that God chose 'us' mankind. He chose us to have a direct son from. That son being Adam. But he chose us, the pre-adamics, 'mankind'.


How fast could Adam and Eve Reproduce ?

Assume that the typical lifespan of a daughter of Eve was 900 years, and her first child was at around 75 years old.

Assume that there were 100 year generations, 10 daughters per generation, 20 children per generation, for the first three generations from 75 to 375, then only 5 daughters per generation for the next generation 375 to 475, then no further children.

We know that Eve gave birth to Cain in 3992Shebat and Abel in 3990Tishri - see [41]. So we take her first 100 year generation as starting in 3990 approx. They all lived up to 960 years.




























































Grand Total of daughters = 12,338,885

Grand total of sons and daughters = 24,000,000 possible in 3300 BC !!

McEvedy and Jones have 14 million for 3000 BC, but 7 million of these would have been Homo Sapiens.

Vegetarians amongst Omnivores

Now we know that pre-historic, that is pre-adamic man was an omnivore and that he wore clothes. But as regards Adam in the garden we know that he was naked and not ashamed and we read:

And God went on to say: Here I have given to you all vegetation bearing seed which is on the surface of the whole earth and every tree on which there is the fruit of a tree bearing seed. To you let it serve as food (Genesis 1:29).

So Adam and Eve were to be vegetarians, both inside and outside the garden since their food was 'on the surface of the whole earth'. This is also an implied prophecy that they will leave the garden. For why give them food outside it if they will always be inside it?

Now God had already formed all of the animals outside the garden, before man, as described in Genesis 1. Not only that but Homo sapiens himself had named them and painted them on walls of caves and domesticated some of them by the time of Adam’s appearance. So why do we read in Genesis 2:

18 And Jehovah God went on to say: It is not good for the man to continue by himself. I am going to make a helper for him, as a complement of him.
19 Now Jehovah God was forming (imperfect tense in Hebrew) from the ground every wild beast of the field and every flying creature of the heavens, and he began bringing them to the man to see what he would call each one; and whatever the man would call it, each living soul, that was its name (Genesis 2)?

It is because these animals were being created after Adam! They were the first souls that God created in the garden to keep him company before Eve. They were Edenic animals, new creations, which were also vegetarian, because God had already said:

30 And to every wild beast of the earth and to every flying creature of the heavens and to everything moving upon the earth in which there is life as a soul I have given all green vegetation for food (Genesis 1).

This would bind the Edenic animals, but the exedenic animals were already eating each other (as were some of the exedenic humans!) The edenic animals are the same animals that we will find in the Kingdom of God about which Isaiah prophesied:

17 For here I am creating new heavens and a new earth; and the former things will not be called to mind, neither will they come up into the heart (Isaiah 65).

25 The wolf and the lamb themselves will feed as one, and the lion will eat straw just like the bull; and as for the serpent, his food will be dust. They will do no harm nor cause any ruin in all my holy mountain, Jehovah has said (Isaiah 65)

This has a literal meaning, that the lion, presently a carnivore will be a vegetarian like the bull. Now we know that these vegetarian animals have already been created because God is resting from his creative works. So they must have been created already. So there were two types of animals coexisting at one point in history, the Kingdom animals and the current animals. It is not hard to see that these were the ones decreed to eat green vegetation in the garden of Eden. They never left the garden however.

So now we can understand the full meaning of Adam’s prophetic words uttered when God brought Eve to him:

23 ....This is at last bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh.... (Genesis 2).

Homo sapiens was bone of his bone, since he shared a common skeleton with Adam. But Eve was flesh of his flesh as well. Indefinitely living flesh at that time.

Both of them had no interaction with the outside world before Adam’s sin because they were not ashamed to be naked, whereas the rest of mankind wore clothes because they were ashamed to be naked. Incidentally they were not ashamed to be naked because they did not know sexual desire in the garden - see [2]. 

Adam's release from Eden

The effect of Adam’s release from Eden upon mankind was monumental. Having achieved virtually nothing other than the domestication of sheep the creation of small farming villages with no administrative structure, the making of some stone and bone tools and the battering of some copper nuggets in the previous 100,000 years we now absolutely explode upon the planet.

Within just 1000 years of his expulsion (in 3993Nisan - see [16], [31]), in fact whilst Adam was still alive (he died in 3097 aged 930 years see - Genesis 5:3,4) we had built cities with large bureaucracies, learned how to write, invented the wheel, domesticated the horse, forged all sorts of alloys, started worshipping in temples and doubled our population from around 7 million to around 14 million!!

At the end of the early Chalcolithic period, then let us say 5000 BC, we find that throughout the greater part of the Near East, all the requirements for the birth of civilisation were present. Villages, Market towns (eg: Catal Huyuk West, over 1300 ft in diameter)…Nevertheless, the expected birth of civilisation did not take place. It was delayed for nearly another millenium and a half, and when it did come, it was not in the areas which had hitherto been most prominent, but in the dismally flat lands of S. Iraq (Mesopotamia) and a little later in Egypt. Areas which until then had been of little or no importance. Why was this so? (The Dawn of Civilisation - Sunday Times 1961).

We will now show that all of this happened as a result of Adam!

It is apparent from the above that it all happened after Adam who was born in 4027Tishri. We will now see confirmation that Writing, the Wheel and the first City all came along after 3500 BC…

First Writings Table:

The appearance of writing marks the end of the prehistoric period and the beginning of the historic period.


Date of first writings found


Mesopotamia (Uruk IVb)

3500 BC

Cambridge Ancient History Vol1 Part 1 p226-228.

Egyptian Hieroglyphics

3000 BC

Genesis - Feyericks


2500 BC

Ancient Civilisations - Scarre & Fagan

The Wheel:

The solid wheel was invented around 3000BC (The Dawn of Civilisation - Sunday Times 1961) and the spoked wheel around 2000BC (Cambridge Ancient History Vol 1 part 1).

The First City:


Today we define a city (in the West)  as a town with a cathedral in it. The very first City in the World is known to be Eridu in Mesopotamia, it contained man's first temple. The Summerian King List, a rectangular clay tablet, an early historical document still in existence today, details 5 cities in Mesopotamia from which 8 kings ruled before the flood. The first of these is said to be Eridu. It says:

When Kingship was lowered from heaven, the kingship was in Eridu. Eridu, Alulim king and reigned 28,800 years/days/units. Algalar reigned 36,000 units. Two kings reigned for 64,800 units. I drop Eridu, its kingship to Badtibira was carried……

Badtibira had three kings reigning for 43,200 units, 28,800 units and 36,000 units.

Then Larak had one king reigning for 28,800 units.

Then Sippar had one king reigning for 21,000 units.

Shuruppak, Ubartutu became king and reigned 18,600 units. One king reigned 18,600 units.

Five cities were they, 8 kings reigned there 241,200 units. The flood swept thereover. After the flood had swept thereover when kingship was lowered from heaven, the kingship was in Kish.

The Cambridge Ancient History (Vol1 Part 1 p330), confirms that Eridu was the first town to become a city, by which is meant that it had an elite ruling class of administrators who were not farmers, it was not a farming co-operative. Cities have overall Mayors and local councils basically. 'Ancient Civilisations' dates this City at 3700 BC and we quote:

The Eridu temples underline the key role of religion in the formation of the first cities. Temples dedicated to patron deities formed a focus of community attention and identity and also became powerful economic institutions, owning large areas of land. The end result was a kind of state religion (Ancient Civilisations p53).

The Dawn of Civilisation (Sunday Times 1961) states:

About 3500 BC a temple was built in Eridu which was to be the classic prototype for the monumental architecture to come. All that remains of it today is the gypsum plastered limestone platform.

All of this came after Adam, and as we shall see, the big boom in civilisation occurred first in the low plain below the garden of Eden, Mesopotamia. We now compare Genesis with Mesopotamian history, geography and mythology with some help from David Rohl (Legend, the Genesis of Civilisation - highly recommended - see [recommended books]).

The Garden of Eden

10 Now there was a river issuing out of Eden to water the garden, and from there it began to be parted and it became, four heads.
11 The first one's name is Pishon; it is the one encircling the entire land of Havilah, where there is gold.
12 And the gold of that land is good. There also are the bdellium gum and the onyx stone.
13 And the name of the second river is Gihon; it is the one encircling the entire land of Cush.
14 And the name of the third river is Hiddekel; it is the one going to the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the Euphrates (Genesis 2).

We know that the Euphrates (Perath) and the Tigris (Hiddekel) are the two great rivers of Mesopotamia. So Eden was an area near to Mesopotamia, and the Garden itself was an area within Eden. Now from Eden we have 4 head waters, or 4 sources of rivers.

David Rohl has shown that the Euphrates and the Tigris have their head waters in the Lake Van and Lake Urmia region in the Iranian highlands between Kurdistan and Armenia. Now just east of this region are two rivers which flow into the Caspian Sea, the Araxes and the Uizhun. The Araxes (Greek name) is called today the Araks or the Aras. Reginald Walker discovered that during the 8th Century AD some pieces of this river were called the Gaihun. He then discovered that 19th Century Persians referred to it as the Jichon - Aras. In fact early Victorian bible dictionaries and commentaries mention the Gihon-Aras (Easton's bible dictionary). But this crucial data has been overlooked recently. Near the Araxes North of the modern town of Tabriz, is a mountain ridge called: 'The Mountain of Cush’. Whereas the Gihon was said to encircle the entire land of Cush. So we now have three of the 4 rivers of Eden.

Walker identified the Uizhun as the only possible candidate for the Pishon by a process of elimination (there were no other rivers around). But David Rohl has gone one better. He has pointed out that there is a place on the southern shore of lake Urmia currently called Pisdeli, that used to be called Uishteri. With this linguistic flexibility we get the Puizhun, which is close enough to the Pishon.

This kind of thing is similar to London, Londres, Londinium etc, or indeed to the case of 'Ornan' of 1 Chronicles 21:18 the man whom David purchased the site of Solomon's temple from (It is now the big Mosque in Jerusalem), who is called 'Araunah' by Samuel in 2 Samuel 24:18.

As a further proof that the Uizhun is the Pishon: We know that the Pishon encircles the land of Havilah where there is gold. Now this river flows past a village called Zarshuyan, which means ‘gold washing’, indicating panning for gold in the river, and where there was a gold mine around 1500 years ago.

The Land of Nod

If we go east of Eden we should end up in Nod:

16 With that Cain went away from the face of Jehovah and took up residence in the land of Nod to the East of Eden (Genesis 4).

So even after leaving the garden, Adam’s family was still near to the face of Jehovah, which actually means that they were still his people, and still worshipping him.

If you go further East towards the Caspian Sea you find the districts of Upper and Lower Noqdi. Several villages here are called Noqdi, and one is called Noadi. The suffix ‘-i' means belonging to (c.f. Pakistani, Israeli).

The Temple at Eridu

David Rohl in 'Legend' compares the Sumerian Adapa Epic to the Genesis account of Adam's fall:

Adapa was the first great Sage who introduced the worship of the Gods to mankind. He was the high priest of Ea’s shrine at Eridu. One day he went into the sea in his boat where he was caught in a storm. Angry with the elements Adapa cursed the South Wind, breaking his wing. As a result the wind did not blow for seven days. This change in the natural order of things was noticed by Anu, god of heaven, and he sent for Adapa in order to punish him. Before the priest of Eridu reached heaven he was warned by Ea that he would be offered the bread and water of death which he must refuse. When Adapa finally arrived in heaven he explained that his curse upon the South Wind was in retaliation for the sinking of his boat by the storm. Once Anu realised what had transpired he was sympathetic to the priest of Eridu and offered him the ultimate gift - the bread and water of eternal life. But of course Adapa refused the priceless gift of the gods and returned to the earth to die a mortal’s death.

This is quite obviously a Satanic counterfeit of the fall of Adam. This sort of deception is typical of Satan. With some spiritual knowledge one can see right into this deception.

Adapa Adam
Breaking his wing Losing his associated angel
Ea Jehovah
Anu Satan
South Wind Holy Spirit

When Moses asked God what his name was he replied:

'Eyah asher Eyah' which means' I am who I am' or 'I am who is Eyah'

So Ea, was Jehovah, who is ‘I am’ in Hebrew.

The South Wind is the holy spirit, and God was walking in the Garden in the breezy part of the day when he called for Adam.

Ea is blamed by the account as deceiving Adam into losing his everlasting life. When it was Satan who deceived Eve into losing her everlasting life, and Adam who knowingly lost his without any deception. Here Anu, who is Satan, is depicting himself to be more merciful and sympathetic than God (vomit, vomit).

But the account shows that Adam was the high priest of Ea at Eridu. (Satan always mixes the truth with the lie, he gets credibility from the truth so that he can sell the lie better). Obviously he was the first high priest of Ea there. As regards this name of God, Ea, which was made known to Moses, we read:

26 And to Seth there also was born a son and he proceeded to call its name Enosh. At that time a start was made of calling on the name of Jehovah (Genesis 4).

So Mankind knew God to be Ea at the time of the birth of Enosh the grandson of Adam (Enosh means 'mortal man' - so Adam had accepted his penalty and was calling on God in repentance). The emergence of a plethora of temples and associated cities, at and after Eridu, proves that there was at least one original and true temple of worship. For no one makes forgeries in the absence of an original.


The first temple at Eridu was dedicated to Enki, which means ‘Lord of the earth’. Enki was also the God of the watery Abyss, Abzu (Legends - David Rohl). Enki was also a son in the Atrahasis Epic:

Nammu the goddess of the primeval ocean says to her son:

Oh my son (Enki) rise from your bed… and work your wisdom! Fashion servants of the gods in their own likeness..

Enki then gathers together all the ‘good and princely craftsmen’ and replies:

Oh my mother, the creature whose name you uttered shall exist. (instructions to the craftsmen): Attribute to it the likeness of the gods. Mix the heart of the clay which is over the abyss. The good and princely craftsmen will work the clay…Ninmah (the goddess of birth) will attribute to it the mould of the Gods - it is man.

So Enki is a son, who gathers all the good and princely craftsmen, i.e. the loyal angels, and organises the making of man in the image of the Gods. Now Enki has the same consonants and the same first letter as Enoch. And Enoch was Michael - see 505, who is the angel with the of the abyss:

1 And I saw an angel coming down out of heaven with the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand.
2 And he seized the dragon [accusative], [the one being] the serpent, the ancient [nominatives] who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for 1,000 years (Revelation 20).

7 And war broke out in heaven: Michael and his angels battled with the dragon, and the dragon and its angels battled (Revelation 2).

Michael the archangel is the one who battle with the dragon and seizes him and imprisons him in the abyss. But not only this, he rises from a bed after he dies, for he was Jesus - see [14b]. The Hebrew word for dust, is ‘aphar’ which also means clay. So now we have Adam as the high priest of Jehovah in the temple dedicated to Enoch in the first city Eridu. In fact Satan was the firstborn angel of God but he lost his firstborn birthright when he induced Eve to sin and Michael, who was Jesus, gained it from him when he was betrayed by him inside Judas - see Intro19. So although Satan had no mother, being a direct creation of God alone, and therefore being the first born and only begotten son of God, Michael had a mother, this one being the rest of the loyal angels as a group, the holy spirits, who are the holy spirit. The concept of a goddess arose when the daughters of Adam, who were daughters of God through Adam, started mixing with homo sapiens after Eden. To homo sapiens who had only just domesticated the sheep, and presumably was only living for around 100 years. Adam and his children who were living nearly 1,000 years were immortal gods. This is the origin of all mythology we suggest. For Adam and his children were sons of God, but Homo sapiens were intelligent creations who initially were animalistic and without spirituality, but later developed it. However Satan, being the firstborn at the time of the creation of man would have had the right, as God's CEO (for God does everything through his firstborn son) to have organised pre-adamic man's creation, so the above could also be a lying publicity campaign from Satan.

Now Adapa means ‘the wise’. In the British Museum, on tablet W-20030, there is a list of 7 antedeluvian kings (6 of which correspond with the Sumerian King List - the 7th might have been coregent i.e in another city which was allied to the lead city.) They each have an associated sage, an apkallus. These look like sons of Adam, because wisdom is what they brought to mankind.

The Sage of the first king in the SKL, the first king of Eridu was called Uan-adapa, who might well have been Adam, except that Adam was dead before he became king if we take the units in the SKL as days. So we guess Uan-adapa was a descendant of Adam. The Sage of the 2nd last of the 8 preflood kings (Enmenduranna/Enmeduranki) was called Utuabzu. This chap is traditionally said not to have died and been buried but to have been taken up to heaven. But this is what happened to Enoch. And Abzu, means abyss, whereas Enoch/ Enki was Lord over the abyss. Now Utuabzu was not Enoch because Enoch was transferred in 3040, aged 365 years, much too early for the 2nd last preflood king to have him as a sage. But Utuabzu is being used as a Satanic counterfeit of Enoch here.

Enoch was born in 3405. Michael would not have possessed him until after the age of procreation, 65+. So after 3340 we have the possibility of a temple to do with Enki. The date for the urbanization of Eridu is around 3500.

Now Enoch was transferred so as not to see death in 3040BC. But if we take the 241,200 units of time in the Sumerian King List as being days (and there is no other sensible unit of time to take them as) we find that it's 670 years of 360 days each. Also every reign of the first 8 kings in the SKL is divisible by 360 except the last two which are divisible by 120, or thirds of a year, which indicates that the Sumerians had 3 seasons. The ancient calendars of mankind all had 360 days in the year - see U90, as does the Biblical Lunar Calendar  - see U4. The longest reign of the 8 Kings is 120 years. That is short for a son of Adam. The average reign was 84 years, which is long for a man if he was not a son of Adam and if he was living 120 years max. Now the bible dates the year of the flood as 2371 BC - see U16. If we count back from the year of the flood 2371Tishri (September/October) - 2370Elul (August/September), 670 years we end up in 3041Tishri to 3040Elul. If we count the years inclusively, then we end up in 3040Tishri - 3039Elul the year in which Enoch ascended to heaven:

21 And Enoch lived on for 65 years. Then he became father to Methuselah.
22 And after his fathering Methuselah Enoch went on walking with the [true] God 300 years. Meanwhile he became father to sons and daughters.
23 So all the days of Enoch amounted to 365 years.
24 And Enoch kept walking with the [true] God. Then he was no more, for God took him (Genesis 5:21-24).

5 By faith Enoch was transferred so as not to see death, and he was nowhere to be found because God had transferred him; for before his transference he had the witness that he had pleased God well (Hebrews 11).

For the chronology of the sons of Adam - see U96. The ancient Hebrew year ran Tishri (September/October) to Elul (August/September). Did Enoch appoint Alulim king in his last year or did Alulim take over on the ascension of Enoch/Enki, after he was out of the way?

The other Enoch in Genesis and Eridu or Irad

17 Cain had intercourse with his wife, and she became pregnant and gave birth to Enoch. Then he engaged in building a city and called the city’s name by the name of his son, Enoch. 
18 Later there was born to Enoch Irad.... (Genesis 4 NWT).

At first sight this looks like Cain built a city called Enoch. But Cain had already prophesied his own future saying:

14 I must become a wanderer and a fugitive on the earth and it is certain that anyone finding me will kill me (Genesis 4).

It is hardly likely that such a recluse who was exiled to wandering around Nod would build a city. The Hebrew actually says:

17 And he knew Cain, namely wife of him, and she became pregnant and she bore namely Enoch and he was building city and he called name of the city as name of son of him, Enoch. 
18 And he was born to Enoch, namely, Irad.... (Genesis 4 NIVHEOT ammended).

It is not linguistically clear whether Enoch is the subject or object here. So Enoch could well be the subject of the sentence, the city builder, in which case the City would be called as ‘Irad’. The Hebrew word for city is ‘Ir’ ry[ the Sumerian is ‘Uru’, ‘Eri’, ‘Ur’ (English Urban) in various dialect spellings (David Rohl - Legends).

But Eridu has the same consonants as Irad, and both names start with the word for 'city' in their respective languages. So Eridu could be the Sumerian of Irad drc.
Now the Hebrew for first is: dxa pronounced ‘Achad’. So the Hebrew for 'first city', or 'city first' would be: Irachad. This would easily shorten to Irad, in fact try saying Irachad a few times!

So Eridu is looking very much like Irad. As David Rohl would then say: Have we now reconciled the first city of Archaeology with the first city of Genesis ? 

So it was the sons of Adam and their wisdom that turned a prehistoric man, into what we are today. They built cities, they tamed animals, they invented the wheel and writing, they forged metals and they fought wars, they worshipped the one true God and they worshipped several false Gods. For the purpose of a fake is to mask the original.

Tubal Cain and Metal forging

As regards forging metals, the second city in the Sumerian King List is called Badtibira, which means ‘Settlement of the metal worker’ (David Rohl - Legends). Now the 7th in line from Cain was called Tubal Cain.

22 As for Zillah she too gave birth to Tubal Cain the forger of every sort of tool of copper and iron (Genesis 4).

Tubal is from the root: lby meaning ‘to flow’. Forging involves heating up a metal until it flows! And Cain comes from a root meaning ‘to forge’. So Tubal Cain is a flow-forger. One suspects that these forged metals were used as weapons. The second city in the SKL, Badtibira, the ‘settlement of the metal worker’ may have defeated the first city, Eridu, using weapons made by this metal worker. Who was this unique singular metal worker? Tubal Cain looks like an outstanding candidate.

In fact since Abel’s blood was crying out to God from the field it is possible that Cain stabbed him with something that he forged. But Tubal Cain appears to have started off not only the bronze age but also the iron age!



David Rohl has introduced a new chronology of Mesopotamia based on the first regnal year of Ammisaduga being 1419 BC (see Legends). With this Chronology every post flood ruler in the Sumerian King List ruled after 2371 BC. Then we have Tablet 15833 in the British Museum. This records transactions between temple herds and mentions the name of the god Shuruppak. It is dated to 2500 BC (Ancient Civilisations - Scarre & Fagan p55). But Shuruppak was the last city in the Sumerian King list, to rule over Mesopotamia before the flood, through King Ubartutu. So since false worship took a while to re-establish after the flood, and since we have no evidence of the city of Shuruppak being rebuilt after the flood, we can say that the flood was after 2500 BC.

The Gilgamesh (Sumerian) Flood Epic

Ea, the clever prince, was under oath with them (the gods) so he repeated their talk (of the flood) to the reed house: Reed house, reed house! Wall, wall! Hear Oh reed house, understand oh wall! Oh man of Shuruppak, son of Ubartutu, tear down the house and build a boat!

Then Utnapishtim, was instructed by Ea to build an ark which he did. Then the flood came and when it subsided he let out a dove then a swallow then a raven, and the ark finally came to rest on mount Nimush where he sacrificed to the gods. Then God said:

Hitherto Utnapishtim has been but a man, but now Utnapishtim and his wife shall be as the gods. In the distance, at the mouth of the rivers, Utnapishtim shall dwell.

So Utnapishtim/Noah was Ubartutu’s son. So Ubartutu was Lamech. Now Lamech died aged 777 years in 2376 BC, 5 years before the flood. He was the last King of Shuruppak according to the SKL (Sumerian King Legends).

The Mesopotamian flood myth has Ziusudra, the Noah hero figure gaining: breath eternal, like a God. A reasonable assessment for a man who lived 950 years:

29 So all the days of Noah amounted to nine hundred and fifty years and he died (Genesis 9).

Whilst his sons after the flood were living 480 years max between Arpachshad and Peleg, and then 240 years max after Peleg - check it out in Genesis 11.

How fast could Noah's daughters procreate ?

Assume: 480 year max humans, who could start procreating at 40 (c.f. Genesis 11).

Assume: 40 year generations, 8 daughters and 8 sons in 40 years, for the first 4 generations, then no more.

After the flood the first children arrived in 2369 (say 2370). 3 breeding pairs say (Shem, Ham, Japheth and wives).











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But there were three breeding pairs to start with so by 2050 there could have been: 65,733,102 daughters of Noah and: 131,466,204 children of Noah in all. (Noah was still alive then!)

This is 5 times McEvedy & Jones’ estimate of 27 million as a world population at 2000 BC. Over 20 million children in under 330 years !

The first Semitic Dynasty, (Dynasty of the sons of Shem) Akkad, started in 2334 BC (Genesis - Feyericks). This was 35 years after Shem’s first son Arpachshad was born - a bit early but reasonable.