Biblical Relativity and the Lorentzian Ether
22 [It is] he that sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the inhabitants thereof [are] as grasshoppers; that stretcheth out the heavens as a curtain, and spreadeth them out as a tent to dwell in: (Isaiah 40 KJV)
The second part of Isaiah from chapter 40 and onwards was written around 600 BC. You cannot sit upon a circle, You can sit upon a ball. So Isaiah knew that the earth was round before mankind knew for certain that it was round.
"The earliest reliably documented mention of the spherical Earth concept dates from around the 6th century BC when it appeared in ancient Greek philosophy but remained a matter of speculation until the 3rd century BC, when Hellenistic astronomy established the spherical shape of the Earth as a physical given. The paradigm was gradually adopted throughout the Old World during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. A practical demonstration of Earth's sphericity was achieved by Ferdinand Magellan and Juan SebastiŠn Elcano's expedition's circumnavigation (1519−1522)" - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spherical_Earth
8 stretching out the heavens by Himself, and walking on the waves of the sea; (Job 9 GLT)
2 covering Yourself [with] light like a cloak, and stretching out the heavens like a veil/curtain; (Psalms 104 GLT)
12 He is the Maker of the earth by his power, the One firmly establishing the productive land by his wisdom, and the One who by his understanding stretched out the heavens. (Jeremiah 10 NWT)
5 This is what the [true] God, Jehovah, has said, the Creator of the heavens and the Grand One stretching them out; the One laying out the earth and its produce, the One giving breath to the people on it, and spirit to those walking in it: (Isaiah 42 NWT)
24 This is what Jehovah has said, your Repurchaser and the Former of you from the belly: I, Jehovah, am doing everything, stretching out the heavens by myself, laying out the earth. Who was with me? (Isaiah 44 NWT)
12 I myself have made the earth and have created even man upon it. I -- my own hands have stretched out the heavens, and all the army of them I have commanded. (Isaiah 45 NWT)
13 And that you should forget Jehovah your Maker, the One stretching out the heavens and laying the foundation of the earth, so that you were in dread constantly the whole day long on account of the rage of the one hemming [you] in, as though he was all set to bring [you] to ruin? And where is the rage of the one hemming [you] in? (Isaiah 51 NWT)
1 The burden of the Word of Jehovah for Israel, says Jehovah, who stretches forth the heavens, and lays the foundation of the earth, and forms the spirit of man in his midst. (Zechariah 12 GLT)
God is stretching out and spreading our the heavens say Isaiah and Jeremiah and Job and David and Zechariah. In fact this theme peppers the old testament. But this was not known until 1929 when Hubble saw it from the red shift seen for light from far away galaxies. We are as grasshoppers, an animal which can jump very high in proportion to its weight. We jump off the planet but end up back down here again. So we shall not colonize another planet or moon during this system. However the universe is a tent in which man will dwell. So the day will come when we colonize the entire universe.
27 Who of you by being anxious can add one cubit to his life span? (Matthew 6).
Jesus is explicitly relating space to time. Mankind thought the two to be absolutely independent until Voigt in 1887 began work on the Lorentz transformation which was finished by Lorentz in 1904 and turned into Einstein's Special theory of Relativity in 1905.
1 In [the] beginning God [Elohim] [God
through the holy spirit] created the heavens [The
light matter universe and the dark matter universe] and the
earth [his creative administration, in the
2 Now the earth proved to be formless and waste and there was darkness upon the faces/surface of [the] watery deep [no divine law had yet been given to the angels, the dark universe came first]; and God's spirit [in Angeliah - see U264a] was moving to and fro [going backwards and forwards in time, not in space. Space is a construct of light as is causal unidirectional time. Angels were not limited by space-time in the dark universe before light came into existence, which brought causality and space-time] upon the faces/surface of the waters [the countenances of the angels].
3 And God proceeded to say: Let there be
light. Then there came to be light [The light
universe comes into being, and time becomes causal, unidirectional in both universes.
There is some kind of relationship between them both. In the light universe E=MC2
in the dark universe there is some projection of this identity, not quite
darkE=darkMx(speed of darkness)2 but some projection of Einsteins law
into the dark universe defining dark space perhaps. What is dark universe
causality? It must be there to identify sin].
4 After that God saw that the light was good [light is divine law that teaches righteousness], and God brought about a division between the light and the darkness [lack of moral direction or divine righteousness] [the division between the light universe and the dark universe symbolises this division in righteousness of the angels].
5 And God began calling the light Day, but the darkness he called Night. And there came to be evening and there came to be morning, a first day (Genesis 1) [the development of the earth in the literal meaning is day for day coincident with the development of the righteousness of the angels in the word symbolic meaning. The creation of the planet earth and of its atmosphere is a physicalization of the moral standing of the angels. God could have called a Night and a Day a 'NigthDay', or a 'Night' or a 'Day'. He chose a Day. This is a prophetic name, it shows that the night will eventually be wiped out, overtaken entirely by the day. This may also mean that the light universe will physically take over the entire dark universe eventually.] (Genesis 1)
Sound is a wave and travels at a fixed speed with respect to its medium (generally air). The speed of sound in air at sea level is around 330 m/s. If you travel along at 329 m/s wrt the air and emit some sound then it will travel 1 m/s faster than you in your forward direction and 659 m/s away from you in the rearward direction. This is because air is a Galilean medium for sound waves.
If you travel at speed v in the x direction wrt the air then your coordinates in space and time (x', t') are related to the coordinates of a person stationary wrt the air (x, t) by the simple Galilean Transformation
x' = x-vt
t' = t
In other words. Time is unaltered by your relative velocity to the medium and distance is just vt less in the x direction because vt is the distance you cover at speed v in time t.
Imagine now a vertical sound clock which is stationary wrt the air, with sound bouncing between an upper and a lower sheet a fixed distance apart. Let's say sound takes time s between walls (ticks). And let's imagine an identical moving vertical sound clock moving wrt air at speed v in x direction. The time between ticks of the moving clock is s'.
Sound has to travel further between bounces of the moving clock because it travels the hypotenuse of the right angled triangle with sides cs and
vsí. It travels at c for time tí so the length of this hypotenuse is ctí. So by Pythagoras
c2s'2= c2s2+ v2s'2
s = √(1-v2/c2)s'
s' = s/√(1-v2/c2) = γs
γ = 1/√(1-v2/c2)
So s'=gs. This always 1 or greater and goes towards infinity as v approaches c. If the moving clock went at the speed of sound then a tick would take an infinitely long time because sound would not be able to reach the upper wall of the clock. So time as measured by the moving click would be slowed down to a standstill and the unit of time would be dilation. Regrettably and very confusingly this is called in physics 'time dilation' when it should be called either time unit dilation or time constriction/retardation.
TIME DILATION IS A MISNOMER - IMPORTANT
Here is what confuses everybody. The moving clock has a longer time between ticks. So if gamma=2 then each tick is twice as long as the stationary clock. But that means the time t' as measured/counted by the moving clock in ticks is half as many ticks (i.e. half as long) so...
s' = γs
tmovingclock = tstaticclock/γ
Yes, time units are dilated but time itself is contracted, constricted, retarded, reduced.
The time as measured by the moving sound clock is not the real time experienced by the observer moving with the clock wrt the air. He still experiences time at the rate he would were he stationary. The moving clock just runs slowly so that moving clock time units are larger by a factor of gamma and so time elapsed between two events is smaller by a factor of gamma when measured by this incorrect moving clock. That is time reduction, time retardation,, time constriction time contraction. It is not time dilation. It is time unit dilation.
Now we replace the sound reflecting sheets with light reflecting mirrors and run the whole experiment again with c = 3x108 m/s, the speed of light.
We consider a stationary guy in a stationary frame x,t and a clock moving at speed v , and the frame moving with the clock having coordinates x',t'. We synchronize these fames so x=t=0 when x'=t'=0.
The clock is considered static in the moving frame, the primed frame, and is seen as moving in the static frame, the unprimed frame. So the clock is not retarded seen from the moving frame. It is retarded when seen from the static frame. So
t = t'/γ (time contraction)
t' = γt
This is where things get rather philosophical.
Michelson and Morley in 1887 showed that light travelling along an x axis and back goes at precisely same speed as light travelling along a y axis and back. From this they deduced that space did not have a stationary ether in which light travelled. They deduced that there was no medium for light. Because had there been one then since the earth is hurtling around the sun at a significant speed, they should have seen a difference in the speeds of light along their two perpendicular axes.
Einstein then developed Special Relativity on the basis that there was no preferred inertial (non accelerating) reference frame. Whereas Lorentz believed that there was an ether and therefore was a preferred inertial reference frame but that the ether was Lorentzian rather than Galilean. An inertial frame moving wrt to the ether, the standard reference frame (say the frame that is stationary wrt the centre of mass of the universe) would obey the Lorentz transformation, rather than the Galilean transformation.
Today most physicists go with Einstein and use the argument that an undetectable ether does not exist. But the Higgs Boson was undetectable for 50 years after it proposed and was found eventually to exist. Likewise dark energy and dark matter are at present undetectable but physicists accept that they exist. So that argument is today obsolete. It makes no difference to relativistic calculations whether you believe there is an ether (a truly stationary reference frame) or not.
But light is a wave, and waves travel through mediums. So we should expect there to be an ether, and that would explain why the speed of light in constant independent of the speed of any non accelerating observer wrt either the ether or any other non accelerating observer. I find it helpful to regard the ether as quantum foam through which light travels making space time in its wake.
But either way we have time contraction, where tstationary for the moving clock is smaller than t'moving, the time as measured in a frame moving with the clock
t' = γt
Now for a beam of light starting at x=t=0 and shooting along the x axis we know that x=ct and x'=ct', since the speed is light is the same in all inertial frames. If we substitute this into our time contraction equation then we get.
ct' = γct
x' = γx
That is the length contraction equation for special relativity.
Now we know that when gamma=1 the Lorentz transformation must reduce to the Galilean transformation
x' = x-vt
For the Lorentz transformation both the length x and the length vt will be altered by gamma. So we get.
x' = γ(x-vt)
If we again substitute x=ct and x'=ct' for our beam of light travelling out from the common origin at x=t=x'=t'=0 along the x axis, we get.
ct' = γ(ct-vx/c)
t' = γ(t-vx/c2)
So the full Lorentz transformation is...
x' = γ(x-vt)
t' = γ(t-vx/c2)
If we measure time in light metres (just as we measure space in light years) then c=1 and the Lorentz transformation becomes
x' = γ(x-vt)
t' = γ(t-vx)
This shows the equivalence of space and time. Hence Jesus said: Which one of you by worry can add a cubit to his lifespan - equating age to height and space to time. Then the famous equation of Einstein becomes not
E= mc2 But simply E=m
And we see that mass is stored energy.
OK derivation of the Lorentz Transformation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-0taHjbs_Y Best video explanation. Gets time unit dilation from pythagorus on horizontally moving double mirror vertical light clock.
http://www.phys.vt.edu/~takeuchi/relativity/notes/section13.html Length contraction from minkowski diagram (Pythagorus again)